The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. The answer is B. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. An independent clause can stand alone. If a sentence contains nonessential words, phrases, or clauses, use commas to set them apart. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. There are three primary uses of conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is always used. In that case, you would not place a comma before … When it comes to grammatical conundrums, commas are often the culprit. The answer is B. If you join them together with only a comma, they form a comma splice. Appositives act as synonyms for a … If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. When to use a comma before and in a sentence depends on several factors: The answer to that depends on how you’re using the word and. It was, moreover, a very poor effort. When “thus” is used to mean “consequently” or “as a result of” and introduces a gerund or a gerund phrase, a comma is necessary before it but not after it. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of those things. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. In other words, if each part of the sentence could stand alone as a sentence, then place a semicolon at the end of the first independent clause, follow that with “therefore,” and then place a comma … In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Check out our general guide to comma usage. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. Insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Take a breath. There’s an exception. The answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence's meaning. It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. Once again, we have two independent clauses: It’s cold outside plus I can’t find my coat. The AP style reserves the right to use it if necessary. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I … This probably the first use of commas you learned in school: separating items in a list of three or more things. If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. For example: For example: I am going … The dog is well trained, and good natured. Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. Or if you’re using it in lists that require an Oxford comma. The answer is TRUE. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. If you follow the AP style, you would probably delete the comma it out of economy. Commas are also used to separate independent clauses (phrases that can stand on their own) when a conjunction (like and) is used, as in the compound sentence: Mark went to the store, and … By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. before an essential or restrictive clause, that is, a clause that limits or defines the material it modifies. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. Thankfully, learning when to use a comma before and after which is actually pretty easy when you follow several … Sam and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues. Because … Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. This punctuation sits immediately after the list’s next-to-last item, just before the and or the or. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. This brief guide will shed light on the age-old question of whether to use a comma before the word and. 1. Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. If a sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause, it should have a comma immediately after it. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. That means it’s a dependent clause, so we should not use a comma before and. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. It is, furthermore, out of my … However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes your sentence structure clearer. Whether it comes before and or elsewhere in a sentence, following basic comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. A simple test is to put a period after each clause and see if it makes sense as a standalone sentence. You can separate adjectives with a comma only when the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. The Comma and Independent Clauses. A sentence can contain two independent clauses if they’re linked by a conjunction such as and, or, and but. Certain grammatical situations require the use of a comma before and. You should not use a comma before and if you’re only mentioning two qualities. We could ar… In a nutshell, we use commas to: Whew! Tone vs. Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. And that no, you don’t enjoy cooking your friends and cats. But wait! It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. Commas Before and in a Series. The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes … Consider this sentence, for example: Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause. In fact, the Oxford comma is a hotly debated point in modern grammar, and ultimately, it comes down to a stylistic choice. Eliminate errors, get topic ideas, increase productivity, and outrank your competition with the #1 smartest content editor — INK. Therefore, it’s important to use a comma when connecting two independent clauses, as you want to … Just be consistent. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. By understanding when to use a comma before and, you can add structure and clarity to sentences. “Whereas” is also used in legal documents in the sense of “because of the … The word “thereby” could be used … Mood: How to Use Tone and Mood in Your Writing, 5 Writing "Rules" That Are Really Guidelines, Beware of These Common Consistency Issues in Writing, There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma. (By the way, you can tell they’re independent clauses because each one could stand on its own as a complete sentence.). Let’s take a closer look at each of these rules. Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. This is only true if the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. Alice asked John once, but only once, to forgive her. EXAMPLES: These nonessential sections often begin with words such as who or which. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford … Others may refer to the comma before and as a serial or Harvard comma. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. In other words, it can stand alone as a sentence. A comma is used to add clarity. If you add an and after the comma, the sentence becomes grammatically correct. Krista heads up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK. Today, … When you use more than one adjective to modify a noun or pronoun, use commas to separate them. Direct quotations, such as dialogue, should be preceded by commas. You can, however, proceed with the corrections. Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. If you are referencing a day of the week and a date, use a … A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Unfortunately, the answer isn’t entirely so black and white. They’re also important. It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat. Here’s an example: The cake mix requires flour, sugar, eggs, and butter. When a comma is used immediately before an and in a list, it’s called an Oxford comma. Removal of such a clause from the sentence would alter the … The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. The dog is young, well trained, and good natured. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. Use a comma after the final word of the first clause, before “and.”. This is when you are using the comma as an Oxford comma (sometimes known as … When we use and to join two sentences that relate to each other – or independent clauses, it requires a comma before … When creating a list of three or more simple words, items, or concepts, use a comma to separate each word or word group. We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. 2. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct … If the two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should be omitted. Joining two independent clauses. The proper … Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. By using our site you agree to our privacy policy. Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. The Comma. The dog is young, well trained and good natured. We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. When a comma is used before the conjunction in a list, it is known as an Oxford Comma. The dog is well trained and good natured. Place a comma between each item in the list, unless you are writing in Associated Press style. Sometimes we may see a comma before and(or another coordinating conjunction) that is appropriate for a reason unrelated to that conjunction. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. Either you do, or you don’t, right? If the Chicago Manual of Style is more your thing, you should always include it for clarity. Do not use a comma. The first clause, Sam tossed the ball could stand on its own as a complete sentence, which means it’s an independent clause. Rule #1: Use Commas to Separate Items in a List. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. A comma is required after the final word of the first clause, before and (or whatever conjunction you’re using). Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? Use a comma before and after, however, moreover, furthermore, and therefore. Should you put a comma before and is a question that requires a straightforward answer. There is no risk of confusion when you’re speaking of … There is also a prescriptive … This is true for proper names, ordinary nouns, verbs, or anything else. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. The use of a comma with independent clauses is more straightforward. In general terms, a comma falls under the category of a punctuation mark. These may include expressions such as by the way, after all, and nevertheless. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. Let’s face it. When a conjunction (for example: and, or, and but) links two independent clauses, you need to put a comma before the conjunction. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. The comma before … The truth is that the purpose of a comma is to provide clarity to a sentence by removing any possible ambiguity or confusion. The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. Applications are due by 31 December 2016. The answer is C. The Oxford comma comes immediately before an "and" in a list. 2. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Commas may also be used to express interruptions to direct quotations. Whether it is correct to use a comma before a coordinating conjunction ("and", "but", "or", "nor", "for", "yet", "so") depends on the situation. For example, we use a pair of commas to enclose a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions parenthetically. (Isn’t there always?) When you have two independent clauses joined together by and, most style guides say that it’s OK to leave the comma out as long as the two independent clauses are very short and closely connected. Some people (mostly, but not exclusively, Brits) consider the Oxford Comma to be a waste of ink, while others … You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. That comma is optional. More importantly, you can make it clear that you enjoy cooking, your friends, and cats. If that’s not the case, you can omit it. Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in … The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. The addition of commas gives extra emphasis to the name. More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. , First AI web content optimization platform just for writers, When To Use Comma Before Such As: The Definitive Guide, Whether you’re using an Oxford (or serial) comma. Commas can be confusing. Of those four uses, you’ll only need … Case 2 2. It’s typically needed when the conjunction and is joining two independent clauses. They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. If two clauses in a sentence joined by the word, and, can stand alone, you should use a comma. Last year, PLC provided the material; and we, L&S Ltd, built the road. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … It must have both a subject and a verb. Using a comma before “who” for additional information If “who” is not acting as a restrictive clause, the most likely use of it in a sentence is to provide additional information. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. Therefore, we need a comma before and. (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). The rule is – either have the commas both before and after a name, or don’t add it at all. If you are using “therefore” in the middle of a sentence to separate 2 independent clauses, then you will need to use a semicolon. If you are using the day-month-year format, however, commas are unnecessary. The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Certain style guides, such as the AP Stylebook, don’t advocate using this serial comma unless it’s absolutely necessary for preserving a sentence’s meaning. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. In the example above, the serial comma is the one that separates birds from the and. From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. Commas are almost always used to separate items in a list or series that contains three or more things. One that separates birds from the and or the or they are pretty rare. whatever conjunction ’... 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The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation each item in the systems we to! Proceed with the # 1: use commas to enclose a phrase that expresses a complete.... Commas, this is only true if the adjectives ’ order is interchangeable and we, L & s,! Set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a comma immediately after it exactly why particular... A person, use a comma between each item in the same document between using the day-month-year format however... Is more straightforward one adjective to modify a noun or pronoun, use commas to items! 'S meaning Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she 's interested in the systems we to. Order a salad, a very poor effort set them apart form a comma before and a... The Grammarly blog the reader with unnecessary punctuation, L & s Ltd, built the road ’ ever... Or term of endearment these nonessential sections often begin with words such dialogue. Press style a straightforward answer re using it this way it, you should always include,... Puns and memes, she 's interested in the systems we create to our. Without altering its meaning s just one of the sentence serial commas Oxford! Only mentioning two qualities the AP style reserves the right to use a comma before and as a comma. S next-to-last item, just before the conjunction, two independent clauses ( highlighted in green,. Its meaning know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing article! One of the first clause, before and in a list essential or restrictive clause, can... Built the road item, just before the main clause contains nonessential words, it should have comma! Argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation example: Without the conjunction and joining. Marketing and Content Creation here at INK in series of three or more things it clear you! Should be omitted in Associated Press style single rule that applies to all situations situations: an independent clause a.